December 1st, 2020 is another year of victories against HIV. No, the cure did not appear and, with the presence of COVID-19, efforts towards a vaccine naturally changed their focus, volume and commitment.
However, here we are, in the continuous struggle, and from 1st December to 1st December, simply living. Simply alive and happy, like this:
HIV and AIDS The Story of the Pandemic That Ended the Sexual Revolution
The Long and Stony Path Traveled in a global health crisis.
Landmarks of a global health crisis
The HIV / PandemicAIDS it was without a doubt the biggest global health crisis in modern history. While others were widespread and deadly (including tuberculosis pandemics, COVID-19e malaria and other epidemics), the number of deaths from AIDS is unprecedented. And excuses don't interest me, I demand respect.
Within a few years, AIDS-related deaths increased from a few hundred gays in the United States to hundreds of thousands and then millions of people across the planet. The fact that experts have never seen a disease like this and are unable to quickly identify a way to prevent it has created a sense of panic between the public and lawmakers.
Thanks to the growing scientific understanding of AIDS and its cause, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the diagnosis of either evolved from a death sentence to a chronic and manageable condition.
Not even remotely similar to a diabetes that, of simple, only has the misinformed idea of some
How many people died of HIV / AIDS? - In translation
A history of HIV / AIDS, A timeline year after year
What has been discovered about HIV / AIDS in this relatively short period of time is remarkable - and has saved lives.
At the end of this year, I walked, resolutely, towards suicide, I couldn't take it anymore, almost five years living on the streets, the majority could bring more complications, I couldn't take it anymore. I took a short walk, my “last round” and that's when Fátima appeared. It did appear, and it undoubtedly saved me. If I am important in your life, which I highly doubt, somehow you owe me to Fátima.
In May, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that five gay men in Los Angeles developed a rare lung infection called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), as well as a number of other diseases consistent with an immune system. collapsing. At the time of publication of the report, two of the men had died and the other three died shortly thereafter.
In December, 270 similar cases were reported in what the researchers were calling homosexual-related immunodeficiency (GRID). Of these, 121 died of the disease throughout the year.
1982 It was before December 1st of this year that Fátima saved me
The disease began to appear among people who were not gay. At the same time, the CDC introduced the term acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the public health lexicon, defining it as a disease “that occurs in a person no known cause to decrease resistance to this disease ”.
Researchers from the Pasteur Institute in France, including Françoise Barré Sinoussi e Luc montagnier, identified a new retrovirus who suggested it was the cause of AIDS, calling it a virus associated with lymphadenopathy (LAV).
In the USA, the disease continued to spread beyond the gay community.
Marco: Confirmation of HIV transmission
The CDC said that sexual contact and exposure to infected blood were the two main routes of transmission of the virus yet to be named.
The American researcher Robert gallo announced the discovery of a retrovirus called human T lymphotropic (HTLV-III), which he believed to be the cause of AIDS. The announcement sparked controversy over whether LAV and HTLV-III were the same virus and which country had patent rights to it.1 (see you ...)
By the end of the year, authorities in San Francisco ordered the closure of the gay sauna, considering them a danger to public health in the face of the growing wave of illness and death among local gay men.
A note from me. The psychosocial consequences of this measure, and similar and even worse ones, have led to unlimited persecution. Without drawing parallels between humans and hominids, here in São Paulo, for example, there was a massacre on monkeys because they were mistakenly considered vectors for yellow fever. Are they monkeys? Yes! But does that justify killing with clubs?
In January, the CDC reported that AIDS was caused by a newly identified virus - the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Then came the news that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first HIV antibody test able to detect the virus in blood samples.
Meanwhile, reports emerged that Ryan White, a teenager from Indiana, was barred from entering his school after developing HIV / AIDS in a blood transfusion. Two months later, actor Rock Hudson became the first celebrity to die of AIDS-related illnesses.
He left all his assets in will for research in the field of HIV / AIDS.
In My Opinion This Is Structural Violence Against Mwomen
It occurred to me here, and since my mind is a complicated thing, I decided to insert here, that this mistake, which led to inhuman declarations by the art of “religious leaders”, that this initial idea of terms in the HIV / AIDS epidemic generated many distortions , and that almost all of them are reigning today and I have, here on the blog, a text that deals with it is something complicated for women.
They are under-considered in research in the HIV / AIDS field. I have already found studies in which women do not make up 20% (vince percent) of the contingent studied and, I am afraid that if I search, I will end up finding one in which there is not even a woman and even researchers do not seem to consider their own gender. in your searches.
Coloring the story, I was faced with a “social mess”, in the eagerness to get glasses that asked me like this:
-How did you get HIV? Was it drugs? because gay, it is evident that you are not ”!
- ”It was asking stupid questions! I asked a person this same question and they bitten me! The idea seems attractive here ”!
-He stepped back, the asshole, the chair itself, across the table. Laughs. It is important to clarify THAT HIV CANNOT BE TRANSMITTED BY TEETH!
Returning to translation, the AIDS Memorial Quilt was designed by activist Cleve Jones to celebrate and ensure that the lives lost in the fight against HIV and AIDS are not forgotten. Each panel of 3 feet (0,91 m) by 6 feet (1,83 m) paid homage to one or more people who died of the disease.2
In May, the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy issued a statement in which it was agreed that the virus that causes AIDS would be officially called HIV.
American playwright Larry Kramer founded the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) in New York City to protest the government's inaction to tackle the growing AIDS crisis in the United States.
Meanwhile, the US and France agreed that LAV and HTLV-III were, indeed, the same virus and agreed to share patent rights, channeling, Finally, most royalties for global AIDS research.
Marco: Development of an HIV drug
In March 1987, the FDA approved the AZT (zidovudine)- the first antiretroviral drug capable of treating HIV. Soon thereafter, they also agreed to speed up the drug approval process, reducing the procedure's delay time by two to three years.
I survived AZT by stopping taking it.
- ”Patrícia… If that's how it is, for me to die, let me die without throwing up six times a day”…
Elizabeth Glaser, wife of the star of Starsky & Hutch, Paul Michael Glaser, founded the Pediatric AIDS Foundation (later renamed the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation) after contracting HIV through a blood transfusion. The charity soon became the world's largest funder of AIDS research and care.
- ”Paulo, why celebrate this day? I don't see anything to celebrate ”…
- ”Cláudio. It's not celebrating. It is to remember those who are gone, it is to remember us, who are here, it is to keep the flame burning and the fight active ”.
Paulo Giacomini and I have differences born from the acidity of our temperaments. This, and much more, I learned from you and yes, thank you very much.
In August, the CDC reported that the number of AIDS cases in the United States had reached 100.000.
This was the penultimate year in which I worked at the Vagão plaza and I remember a conversation I had with Chicão, a waiter from the VP who, besides Edson, the greatest barman I met, was my great friend.
There we also had Chico and Chiquinho and on a certain afternoon Chico came out with me:
- ”The woman (D. Andréa, the owner of the house, extremely choleric) called here now, I answered and she asked:
- ”Is Chicao there?
- "Is Chiquinho there?"
- ”P ** r *, who's talking, c *** lh *?
- "O Chico".
I assume she started the conversation irritated and ended it furiously:
- ”C *** ho! Go T **** no **! and hung up the phone.
Chico told me this desolate and I laughed for about twenty minutes. I was someone else. Returning to the conversation with Chicão, the context was more or less this:
We talked about HIV, AIDS, paranoia and somatization. Pandinha, read carefully.
- ”The guy enters the cafeteria, orders a cold mix, an orange juice and waits. The clerk does the job mechanically and doesn't even look at the oranges, after all, they are in an automatic sweat rack. Half of them are, say, half past, and the next day, after drinking the juice and going out with a girl from the Vagão Plaza, without having used a condom, he has a "shit". Very panic installed and the subject, out of fear and ignorance, for fear of transmitting to his wife that he cheated yesterday, stop making love to her.
After that, the conversation became serious and unpublishable, but it revolved around Nastari, the VP's main Maitre, fluent in Italian, French, English, Spanish and GERMAN, who had lost, unfortunately, his life and, with it, all its predicates, due to AIDS complications that, in those days, were uncontrollable.
The death of teenager Ryan White in Indiana in April sparked a wave of protests as government officials were accused of continued inaction.
MARCO: Congressional support
The United States Congress responded by passing the Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act Ryan White (CARE) of 1990, designed to provide federal funding for community-based HIV care and service providers.
I finally got tired of being involved with pimping (good or bad that was it) and resigned from the Wagon. However, some time later I tried to go back, but I declared, in the past a little remote, but I live for her, the also called Mistress, my opinion about pimping and that prohibited the conversation. I had needed to work again in spite of any moral lessons from me. Think about it a little, you who read me now. I can have explanations for all of this, but I have no justification.
AIDS has become the leading cause of death for American men ages 25 to 44.3
The CDC expanded the definition of AIDS to include people with CD4 counts in 200. In June, President Bill Clinton signed a law allowing a ban on all immigrants with HIV.
AIDS becamethe leading cause of death among all the Americans from 25 to 44 years old (sorry ...). The disaster was made manifest in my life.
Meanwhile, the results of the historic ACTG 076 study were released, showing that AZT administered shortly before delivery could dramatically reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy, vertical transmission.4
The results were quickly followed by the publication of the first guidelines of the United States Public Health Service (USPHS), recommending the use of AZT in pregnant women with HIV.
The FDA has approved Invirase (saquinavir mesylate), the first drug in the class of protease inhibitors introduced into the antiretroviral arsenal.
Marco: Emergence of a treatment protocol
The use of protease inhibitors ushered in an era of high activity antiretrovir therapy (HAART), in which a combination of three or more drugs was used to treat HIV. In Brazil, this became known as “cocktail” and, in those dark days, I took 50 (fifty) pills a day.
Nevertheless, I lost Márcia, Waldir, Cláudia, Ana Paula, Bianca, Edson, Gabriel. Do you want me to stay on the list?
At the end of the year, it was reported that 500.000 Americans were infected with HIV.
1996 - Hope is born.
But a “scientific” magazine in Brazil puts on the newsstand a plain cover saying:
AIDS, 1% OF THE CURE.
The FDA has approved the first viral load test capable of measuring a person's blood level of HIV, as well as the first home HIV test kit and the first non-nucleoside class drug called Viramune (nevirapine).
In the same year, the USPHS issued its first recommendations on the use of antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of infection in people accidentally exposed to HIV in healthcare settings.5
The USPHS recommendation for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) formed the basis for preventive treatment in cases of sexual exposure, rape or accidental blood exposure.
The AIDS Memorial Quilt, consisting of more than 40.000 panels, was placed on the National Mall in Washington, DC and covered the entire length of the national public park.
I met, in the small room, the girl who introduced herself as “Mariana” to whom, in the booth, I said just that:
- “Oi” - And the answer was very simple:
It was then, at this moment, that the most beautiful and beautiful love story of my life was born. Mariana was a pseudonym for Mara
The CDC reported that widespread use of HAART has dramatically reduced the risk of HIV-related illness and death, with mortality rates dropping surprisingly 47% compared to the previous year.
Marco: Africa becomes an HIV hotbed
Meanwhile, the United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS) reported that nearly 30 million people have been infected with HIV worldwide, with Southern Africa accounting for almost half of all new infections.
The CDC issued the first national HIV treatment guidelines in April, while the United States Supreme Court ruled that the ADA covered all people living with HIV.
“Mariana” suggests building a website for me. I tell her I didn't know how to make websites and she answers me, without jumping:
- ”Seven-year-old boys make websites”…
Think of my facial expression!
The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that HIV was the leading cause of death in Africa, as well as the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. WHO also estimated that, in all, 33 million people have been infected and that 14 million have died as a result of HIV-related illnesses. No excuse interests me!
2000 - Personal Achievement is born
On August 2000, XNUMX, the site known as Seropositive Home Page. That had the support without which nothing would be possible, for five years, Braslink Network which guaranteed free hosting for five years.
The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa, was controversial when then President Thabo Mbeki (an accomplished idiot who said he would treat HIV infection with beets and vegetable soups), in the opening session, expressed doubts that HIV causes AIDS.
At the time of the conference, South Africa had (and continues to have) the largest population of people living with HIV in the world. In this year Nelson Mandela delivered a speech which, in the end, brought me to tears.
O Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was founded in Geneva, Switzerland, to channel resources to HIV programs in developing countries. At the time of its founding, 3,5 million new infections were reported in Sub-Saharan Africa alone.
Meanwhile, in an effort to speed up HIV testing in the U.S., the FDA has approved the first rapid HIV rapid blood test capable of delivering results in 20 minutes with 99,6% accuracy. Pandinha, back in 2000!
President George HW Bush announced the formation of the President of the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which has become the largest HIV funding mechanism by a single donor country.3Unlike the Global Fund, which provided countries with a measure of sovereignty over how money could be used, PEPFAR took a more practical approach with greater degrees of supervision and program measures.
Marco: First vaccine trials and trials failed
The first HIV vaccine vaccines fail trial, using the AIDVAX vaccine, failed to reduce infection rates among study participants. It was the first of many vaccine tests who, in the end, failed to achieve reasonable levels of protection for people with HIV or for those who hoped to avoid the disease.
Meanwhile, the next generation nucleotide class drug, Viread (tenofovir), was approved by the FDA. The drug, which has proven effective even in people with profound resistance to other HIV drugs, has quickly moved to the top of the United States' list of preferred treatments and has become part of compassionate protocols in Brazil and worldwide. I have so much to thank ...
According to WHO, more than one million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy, a 10-fold increase since the launch of the Global Fund and PEPFAR's efforts.
In the same year, researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda were interrupted after it was demonstrated that male circumcision could reduce a man's risk of contracting HIV by up to 53%.
Well, I was circumcised at the age of four because of a phimosis and, for me, against HIV infection, it was worthless!
Likewise, the CDC issued calls for HIV testing for all people aged 13 to 64, including an annual test for individuals considered to be at high risk.
The CDC reported that, at that point, 565.000 Americans, human beings had died, precociously, leaving friends, family, lovers, sons, daughters, FAMILIES involved in PAIN, FEAR, ANGER AND PERPLEXITY, as a result of the HIV infection that evolved uncontrollably until it became AIDS, to make room for the manifestation of one, often the conjunction of more than two infections, or portunistic diseases, leading the person to death.
EXCUSES? Not even the most abandoned ones are of interest here.
- ”Take me anywhere” - Cazuza. See here the song, lyrics and album data.
No less disheartening was to estimate that of about 1,2 million Americans living with HIV, between 20% to 25% did not know they are infected.
Timothy Brown, popularly known as Berlin patient, was reported cured of HIV after receiving an experimental stem cell transplant. Although the procedure was considered too dangerous and expensive to be viable in a public health setting, it has given rise to further studies in the hope of repeating the results.
The administration of President Barack Obama officially ended the ban on immigration and travel to HIV to the United States of America (from the North, it should be noted)
In November, researchers from the IPrEx Study reported that daily use of the drug combination Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine) reduced the risk of infection in HIV-negative gay men by up to 44%.
Marco: First steps for prevention
The IPrEx study is the first to endorse the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of HIV in uninfected individuals.
After demonstrating that people on antiretroviral therapy had 96% less likely to transmit HIV to an uninfected partner capable of sustaining a Undetectable viral load, Science magazine appointed the HPTN 052 study of Revelation of the Year.
The study confirmed the use of Treatment as Prevention (TasP) as a means of preventing the spread of HIV in serodiscordant couples (one partner is HIV positive and the other is HIV negative).
2012 - In this year, in the month of May, the blog suffered a hacker attack and was deleted to the root.
If I hadn’t been tri-pananoic and hadn’t, as I have here, 40 daily back-ups from the blog, it would have ceased to exist
Despite a reversal in the number of HIV-related deaths, health officials in South Africa reported that the number of new infections increased over the previous year by more than 100.000, mainly among teenagers and younger adults.
The FDA has officially approved the use of Truvada for PrEP.3It happened at a time when the US reported just over 50.000 new diagnoses, a number that has remained largely unchanged since 2002.
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Barack Obama, the first black president elected in the United States (Yes, we can) signed the HIV Political Equity Act (HOPE) for HIV, which allows organ transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient.
UNAIDS announced that the new infection rate in low- and middle-income countries has dropped by 50% as a result of the expansion of HIV treatment programs. They also reported that about 35,3 million people were infected with HIV.
The FDA has approved the drug in the class of integrase inhibitors, Tivicay (dolutegravir), which has been shown to have fewer side effects and greater durability in people with profound drug resistance. The drug was quickly moved to the top of the list of preferred HIV drugs in the United States.
O Affordable care (ACA) expanded health insurance to previously denied individuals. Before the law went into effect, less than one in five Americans with HIV had private health insurance.
Marco: discovering the origin of HIV
Meanwhile, scientists at Oxford University, investigating historical records and genetic evidence, concluded that the HIV probably originated in or around Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The theory goes that a hybrid form of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) jumped out of Troglodytes bread chimpanzee to man as a result of exposure to blood or ingestion of game meat.
Do you know COVID-19? That's right ... Think 10.000 (ten thousand) times before eating something exotic and check 100.000 (one hundred thousand) times the sanitary conditions of the kitchen, preparation and slaughter. Surely you wouldn't eat if you did?
2015 - The START Study changed everything. Or almost everything
O study on the strategic moment of antiretroviral treatment (START) was launched for delegates at the International AIDS Society Conference in Vancouver, Canada. The study, which showed that anti-HIV therapy provided at the time of diagnosis can reduce the risk of serious illness by 53%, sparked calls for immediate changes in public policies.
Four months later, WHO published updated guidelines recommending HIV treatment at the time of diagnosis, regardless of CD4 count, location, income or stage of the disease. They further recommended the use of PrEP in people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV.
On World AIDS Day, the CDC reported that annual HIV diagnoses in the United States fell 9%, with the sharpest declines among heterosexuals and African American women. In contrast, younger gay men remained at high risk of infection; African American gays have been reported to have 50/50 chance of getting HIV during the life.
On December 21, the FDA lifted the 30-year (!!!!!!!) ban on blood donation from gay and bisexual men with a notable warning: only men who had not had sex for a year could donate. The decision sparked the ire of AIDS activists, who insisted it was discriminatory and nothing less than a de facto ban.
Demanding a year of abstinence before a donation is, at the very least, slutty. Controversial statement? Well, it's the face of their determination ...
According to WHO, 38,8 million people were infected with HIV and, in all, nearly 22 million people died of causes associated with HIV. Excuses?
With evidence that universal HIV treatment could reverse infection rates, United Nations launched its strategy 90-90-90 to objective of identifying 90% of people living with HIV, placing 90% of positively identified individuals in treatment and ensuring that 90% of those in therapy were able to achieve undetectable viral loads.
In May, a CDC report revealed that the HIV / AIDS mortality rate among blacks and African Americans has decreased significantly: between 18 and 34 years of age, HIV-related deaths have fallen by 80%. Among those aged 35 and over, deaths decreased by 79%.
The year began with the death of a major AIDS researcher, Mathilde Krim, on January 15. Krim founded the Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) in 1985. Since then, the organization has invested more than $ 517 million in its programs.
My view of amfAR is complicated ...
A week later, NIH launched a global study to examine antiretroviral treatment regimens for pregnant women with HIV and their babies.3The aim is to ensure that these women and their children receive the safest and most effective treatment. (Finally!)
December 1st was the 30th anniversary of World AIDS Day.
Marco: The prevention of high-tech HIV / AIDS
Researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory have found that computer simulation can be used to predict how HIV spreads, enabling state health departments to track the spread of the virus and have a powerful tool to help prevent new HIV infections.
Points to reflect
Despite all the fear and anger caused by the HIV / AIDS pandemic, it has transformed the landscape of science and politics in a number of ways, particularly in terms of advocacy and patient protection. It also forced the drug approval process faster, while encouraging researchers to develop many of the genetic and biomedical tools that we think are right today.
The simple fact that HIV has gone from an almost uniformly fatal diagnosis to one that people can now live healthy and normal lives in spite of is nothing short of wonderful, fantastic, grand and surprising. I celebrate women and men involved in this daily struggle and I wonder how many times that researcher, that researcher, two in the morning, getting in his car, in the parking lot, has a mental click and does not see another line of action and conduct being, minutes later, again dressed or dressed, testing your ideas.
Still, we have a long way to go and many lessons to learn before we can consider ending the crisis.
It is only by looking back that we can better understand the challenges that we still have to face, as we move towards making HIV / AIDS a thing of the past.
And no, these excuses, I'm definitely not interested
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- Vahlne A. A historical reflection on the discovery of human retroviruses. Retrovirology. 2009; 6: 40. doi: 10.1186 / 1742-4690-6-40
- Fee E. The AIDS memorial quilt. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96 (6): 979. doi: 10.2105 / AJPH.2006.088575
- US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). A timeline of HIV / AIDS. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs; Washington DC; September 18, 2016.
- National Institutes of Health. ACTG 076 Questions and Answers. February 20, 1994.
- Panlilio AL, Cardo DM, Grohskopf, Heneine W, Ross CS. US Public Health Service Guidelines for managing occupational HIV exposures and recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis updated. MMWR. September 30, 2005: 54 (RR09); 1-17.
Additional reading, suggested by the AI of the HIV Positive Blog
- Long Life and HIV / AIDS
- Acute HIV Infection, Immune Window and Clinical Latency.
- HIV / AIDS well explained
- Five Patients in a Thirteen Study Appear Cured of HIV
- End AIDS
- What is HIV? What is AIDS
- Candidiasis (Candidiasis)
- PrEP and Sorodiscordant Couples
- What is Abacavir (Ziagem)? Abacavir (Ziagem) is an Antiretroviral:
- Cohen M, McCauley M, Gamble T. HIV treatment as prevent and HPTN 052. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. March 2012; 7 (2): 99-105. doi: 10.1097 / COH.0b013e32834f5cf2
- Cunningham TJ, Croft JB, Liu Y, et al. Vital signs: racial disparities in age-specific mortality among blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999–2015. Weekly Morbidity and Mortality Report (MMWR). May 5, 2017; 66 (17): 444–456. doi: 10,15585 / mmwr.mm6617e1
- Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363: 2587-2599. doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa1011205
- Leitner T, Romero-Severson E. Phylogenetic patterns retrieve known epidemiological relationships from HIV and reveal the common transmission of multiple variants. Nature Microbiology. 2018; 3(9):983-988. doi: 10.1038 / s41564-018-0204-9
- MedlinePlus. HIV/AIDS. January 10, 2019.
- INSIGHT START study group. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at the beginning of asymptomatic HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373: 795-807. doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa1506816
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2010–2016. Supplementary HIV surveillance report. 2019; 24 (1).
- US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). A timeline of HIV / AIDS. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs; Washington DC; September 18, 2016.