There is life with HIV

Why CD4 T cells are so important?

Here they are

CCD4 T cells are key components of our immune system and the more you research about it, the more you learn. And I, in my research, bumped, so to speak, in this article that clarifies a constant question ”

Why CD4 T cells why are they so important?

As CD4 T cells they are a subset of white blood cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. CD4, on the other hand, is a protein expressed in certain cells of the immune system, such as T cells, macrophages and monocytes.

CD4 T cells are considered “helper” cells because they do not neutralize infections, but they trigger the body's response to infections.

In response, CD8 T cells - classified as such due to the protein expressed on their surface and play the role of “killer” cells producing substances (antibodies) that help fight viruses and other foreign invaders.

What is the role of these T cells in HIV infection

One of the puzzles of HIV infection is that the cells destined to initiate an immunological defense are the same cells directed to HIV infection. HIV. Like retroviruses, HIV needs to infect certain “host” cells, in this case CD4 T's, to make copies of yourself. CD4 cells are the main targets for this end in the course of an infection.

AZT: Eu sobrevivi ao AZT
This photo was obtained through a "electronic tunneling" microscope.
In blue a cultured CD4 T lymphocyte.
And this is a good way to understand “the thing”!
Each of these green dots is a new virion, descendant of that first invader of the cell that ended up enslaved and will work until exhaustion. And watch carefully, because for this one in the image, there is no hope! How many he will still produce, I couldn't say. But yours, mine and ours (...) only have Antiretroviral Therapy as a scientifically efficient wall to keep things like that!

There Is Life With HIV Only If You Can Respect Your Limits

During infection, HIV binds to these helper cells, as CD4 T, emptying its genetic material, so that the host's genetic code can be changed to perform another function, a cell enslavement process, forcing it to produce other HIV virions. 

In doing so, after some time, the so-called white blood cell host is eliminated. 

The infected person's ability to trigger an immune defense is gradually depleted. And such exhaustion leaves your body open to opportunistic infections.

In the dynamics of HIV it is such that CD8 “killer” T cells become increasingly “blind” in an advanced infection and eventually become unable to cope with the growing population of HIV copies (measured by viral load).

A HIV infection left untreated, the immune system will, in all cases, collapse completely! Or you will be extremely compromised. However, there are rare exceptions!

CD4 T cell categories

More often, we tend to think of CD4 T cells as a kind of cell. 

In fact, it was only in the mid-1980s that scientists began to identify several subsets of white cells with different functions. Some are important in activating macrophages and dendritic cells during initial infection, while others target immune defenses when confronted, individually, with parasitic organisms, bacteria or viruses.

This includes subtypes called 

  • T-helper 1, 
  • T-helper 2, 
  • T-helper 9,
  •  T-helper 17,
  •  (cell) regulatory T and follicular auxiliary T cell.

And each of which expels (the verb is actually to secrete) different types of substances. And these have the purpose of helping to neutralize different species and hues of aggressive agents. With a plethora of different characteristics.

For whoever understands this will certainly see God!

Diagnostic value of CD4 cells

By determining how many functioning CD4 cells are circulating in the blood, a doctor can determine the functional conditions of the immune system.

Because, with a simple blood test called CD4 count, you estimate the number of CD4 cells (cells that express the protein that gives name to CD4 T cells) functioning in a cubic millimeter of blood. 

The higher the CD4 count, the better and stronger the immune function.2

In a healthy adult, a normal C countCD4 T cells can vary enormously (by population, age group, etc.), but is typically about 500 to 1500 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (ml)

When it falls below 200, however, the disease is technically classified as AIDS / AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) .3

It is in this period that opportunistic infections are known to occur. And they will always be the most serious, because the immune system is over-damaged by HIV infection!

Before 2016, CD4 counts had been used as a means of determining when to start antiretroviral therapy

Antiretroviral Therapy, ART, brought the horizons closer!

The concept of starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) was changed by the results of a study called START. They like acronyms

But in recent years, that role has changed as global authorities now support the immediate start of the HIV therapy in diagnosis (instead of waiting until CD4 count drops below 500 cells / mL, as was the previous guideline) .4

The CD4 count is also used to monitor an individual's response to therapy. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, in general, capable of restoring a person's immune function. 

On the other hand, people who start treatment with very low CCD4 T cells (below 100 cells / mL) generally have a harder time restoring their CD4 counts to normal levels, especially after a severe attack of disease.5

Unfortunately the number of people who are only diagnosed late is innumerable. And, belatedly, everything is more complicated.

It is much more difficult to solve and certain opportunistic diseases. Well, some are far beyond fatal. Because they would undermine the quality of life, leaving people with such weaknesses little chance of recovery!

These here are the five amid 17!

I am alive, and not just me, much more for the goodness of God than for any other medical reason! I only know how much meningitis hurts in the head; and I know how many people I lost in the midst of the 90s shooting.

The sooner you discover your serology, the less damage will have occurred to your T cell Helper contingent

The fear of knowing is unwise. One of the reasons for my predication of living with HIV is exactly this.

You, diagnosed quickly, have better chances of life with quality. And I don't even want to think about the results of late diagnoses. 

It is therefore important to get tested and seek immediate care in the event of an HIV-positive diagnosis. If treatment is started quickly, people living with HIV now have a much greater and better chance of living a normal life It's healthy.

Just understand Syphilis to not be

Keep in mind that COVID-19 is independent of this to be lethal, but for us, it can be even more complicated!

Mark Cichocki, RN  Medically reviewed by Richard N. Fireros, MD 

Translated by Cláudio Souza on June 23, 2020 from the original in What are CD4 T-Cells and Why They Are Important 

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