Clinical Latency of HIV Infection and the Path from Acute HIV Infection
Acute HIV infection, or primary HIV infection, is the initial stage of the human immunodeficiency virus and lasts until the body creates antibodies against the virus
Acute HIV infection, or primary HIV infection, is the initial stage of the human immunodeficiency virus and lasts until the body creates antibodies against the virus. It develops and after a period that can be 2 to 4 weeks after someone contracts HIV. It is also known as primary HIV infection or acute retroviral syndrome. During this initial stage, the virus is multiplying at a rapid rate.
Clinical latency of HIV infection. is what happens after HIV infection. Just as the primary infection may have no symptoms, clinical latency is, in general, treacherously silent. So she went to me and, when I took the first punch, I was already so undermined that it was “knockout in the first round.
The meningitis that hit me head on and knocked me down for months could have been fatal. However, I'm here!
Speaking of the symptoms of the acute infection, it develops, in fact it can develop, after a period that can be 2 to 4 weeks after a person contracts HIV. This phase is also known as primary HIV infection or acute retroviral syndrome. During this initial stage, the virus is multiplying at a rapid, overwhelming rate!
Unlike others virus, that the body's immune system can normally fight, HIV can be fought, however, there is no way to eliminate it from the body; neither by the immune system, nor by antiretroviral drugs; the infection can be controlled, but not completely eliminated. Better to read on and learn more about ...
… Acute HIV infection and knowing better what it is
For a long time, the virus attacks and destroys immune cells, leaving the immune system unable to fight other diseases and infections. When this happens, it can lead to HIV at an advanced stage, known as AIDS or 3 stage of HIV.
It is possible to contract HIV from a person with acute HIV infection due to the high rate of viral replication during this period.
However, most people with acute HIV infection do not even know they have contracted the virus.
What are the symptoms of acute infection?
The symptoms of acute HIV infection are similar to those of influenza and other viral illnesses, so people may not suspect that they have contracted HIV.
In fact, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that of the 1,2 m (million) of people living with HIV in the United States, about 14% of them are unaware that they have the virus. Taking the test is the only way to know.
Symptoms of acute HIV infection can include:
- sore throat
- night sweats
- loss of appetite
- ulcers that appear in the mouth, esophagus or genitals
- swelling of the lymph nodes
- muscle aches
Not all symptoms may be present, and many people with acute HIV infection have no symptoms.
However, if a person has symptoms, they can last for a few days or even 4 weeks and then disappear even without treatment.
What causes acute HIV infection?
Acute HIV infection occurs 2 to 4 weeks after initial exposure to the virus. HIV is transmitted by:
- contaminated blood transfusions, mainly before 1985,
- sharing syringes or needles with someone living with HIV;
- contact with blood, semen, vaginal fluids or anal secretions containing HIV,
- pregnancy or breastfeeding if the mother has HIV. O
HIV is not casually transmitted through physical contact, such as hugging, kissesholding hands or sharing food utensils.
Saliva does not transmit HIV.
Who is at risk of becoming infected with HIV?
HIV can affect people of any age, sex, race or sexual orientation. However, behavioral factors can put certain groups at an increased risk of HIV.
How is HIV infection diagnosed?
If a health professional suspect that a person has HIV, they will do a series of tests to check for the virus.
A standard HIV screening test does not necessarily detect acute HIV infection.
Many HIV screening tests look for antibodies to HIV instead of the virus itself. Antibodies are proteins that recognize and destroy harmful substances, such as viruses and bacteria.
The presence of certain antibodies usually indicates a current infection. However, it may take several weeks after the initial transmission for HIV antibodies to appear.
If a person's antibody test results are negative, but your doctor believes that he or she may have HIV.
The healthcare professional may also ask you to repeat the antibody test a few weeks later to see if any antibodies have developed.
Other HIV Tests
Some tests that can detect signs of acute HIV infection include:
- HIV “RNA” viral load test
- blood from the p24 antigen
- a combined test for anti-HIV antibody antigens (also called 4th generation tests)
The p24 antigen blood test detects the p24 antigen, a protein that is only found in people with HIV. An antigen is a foreign substance that causes an immune response in the body.
The 4th generation test is the most sensitive test, but it does not always detect infections in the first 2 weeks.
People who have a 4th generation exam or blood test for the presence of the p24 antigen also need to confirm their HIV status with a viral load test.
Anyone who has been exposed to HIV and may be suffering from acute HIV infection should be tested immediately, regardless of the immune window, as it is necessary to determine whether the infection already exists,
If a health care professional knows that someone has had possible recent HIV exposure, they will use one of the tests that can detect acute HIV infection.
How is HIV infection treated?
O tratamento Adequate care is crucial for people diagnosed with HIV +.
Health professionals and scientists agree that early treatment with antiretroviral drugs should be used by all HIV-positive people who are ready to start taking a daily medication.
Early treatment can minimize the effects of the virus on the immune system.
Newer antiretroviral drugs are generally very well tolerated, but there is always the possibility of side effects.
If a person believes they are having a side effect or an allergic reaction to the medication, they should contact their doctor immediately.
Improving Your Way of Life Can Help
In addition to medical treatment, healthcare professionals may also suggest certain lifestyle adjustments, including:
- eat a healthy, balanced diet to help strengthen the immune system
- having sex with condoms or other barrier methods to help decrease the risk of passing HIV to others and contracting sexually transmitted infections (STDs)
- reduce stress, which can also weaken the immune system
- avoid exposure to people with infections and viruses, as the immune system of people with HIV may have a harder time responding to the disease
- exercising regularly to stay active
- keep hobbies
- reduce or avoid alcohol consumption and injecting drugs
- using clean needles when injecting drugs
- quit smoking
What are the prospects for someone living with HIV?
There is no cure for HIV, but treatment allows people with HIV to live long and healthy lives. The outlook is better for people who start treatment before HIV damages their immune system.
Early diagnosis and correct treatment help prevent the progression from HIV to AIDS.
Successful treatment improves the expectation and quality of life for someone living with HIV. HIV is generally considered to be a chronic condition and can be controlled in the long term.
Treatment can also help someone living with HIV achieve an undetectable viral load, from which they will not be able to transmit HIV to sexual partners.
How can acute HIV infection be prevented?
Acute HIV infection can be prevented by avoiding exposure to blood, semen, anal secretions and vaginal fluid from a person living with HIV.
Below are some ways to reduce your risk of getting HIV:
- Reduce exposure before, during and after sex. A variety of prevention methods are available, including condoms (male or female), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TasP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).
- Avoid sharing needles. Never share or reuse needles when injecting drugs, or getting a tattoo. Many cities have needle exchange programs that provide sterile needles.
- Take precautions when handling blood. If you are handling blood, use latex gloves and other barriers.
- Get tested for HIV and other STDs. Getting tested is the only way for a person to know if they have HIV or another STD. Those with a positive test can then seek treatment that can eventually eliminate the risk of HIV transmission to their sexual partners. Being tested and treated for STDs reduces the risk of passing them on to a sexual partner.
- people using injecting drugs should not share needles, syringes and other vestments
- People who without a condom or other barrier method must change this way of looking at things
Acute HIV infection, in short, lasts between two and four weeks. But HIV infection, with the means we know, cannot be cured and will remain in your life until there is a cure for it or your life is over.
There is currently a long-term perspective on HIV and I always say: there is life with HIV.
But I, Claudio, assure you:
Living without HIV is much better.