What are CD4 Cells? And How Is The Evolution From HIV Infection To AIDS
Editor's note: The indications on this page for starting ART are wrong and it was a problem waiting for health to decline to such an extent (today I see how abhorrent it was) that we would be at risk of life or very close to passing .
The START study has proven that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should start as soon as the diagnosis is made. It remains here as a living document of the errors that scientists have made and God knows how many people have died so unfortunate in such an irrational way, victimized by AIDS Clinically and Scientifically Conscious.
CD4 cells or macrophages sometimes known as T-cells or helper cells; it's the white cells that organize your body's immune response. Comparing your system immune system went to an army, and this nomenclature would suit him very well! And these cells could be known as the generals of your immune system.
The CD4 Cell Count alerts us on The evolution of HIV infection to AIDS
The counting of these cells is the measurement of their quantity.
CD4 cells, found in a milliliter of blood, a very small portion of the blood. And not your whole body, as you might think; this analysis seems to be insufficient! However, it is more than enough to analyze the condition of your immune system. Your doctor will probably refer to them as a number; for example, 498.
The count of cells CD4 in an uninfected person with HIV it can vary between 500 and 1500. However, CD4 counts can vary widely from individual to individual. Your own CD4 count can vary widely, due to several factors, for example:
- Women generally have higher scores than men CD4 (about 100).
- Count CD4 cells usually oscillate up and down depending on your menstrual cycle.
- Oral contraceptives tend to lower the count CD4 women.
- Smokers tend to have a count of CD4 than nonsmokers (about 140).
However, none of these factors seem to influence the immune response in humans.
Only a small proportion of CD4 cells are in your bloodstream. The rest of them remain between the organs, such as the spleen, and in the lymph nodes.
Keep in mind that Variations in the CD4 count may occur due to these migratory movements.
They are movements between the bloodstream and body tissues.
Therefore, it is better than giving too much importance to a single exam. The ideal is to measure the CD4 count in small intervals.
And keep in mind that the shorter these intervals are, the better. However, if you are not feeling well, or have an active infection like herpes or flu, you may want to ask your doctor to delay collection a little.
If you get a very different result than usual, and it doesn't matter if it's for better or worse, ask your doctor to repeat the test, to check if there was an error in the laboratory.
Right after HIV infection, your CD4 count will likely have dropped dramatically, before stabilizing. Even when you feel good and there is no apparent sign of HIV infection, millions of cells of this type are being invaded and lost every day, and millions of others are being produced to replace them. Without treatment, an HIV positive person will gradually lose these cells and there will be, overall, a drop in the CD4 cell count and another drop, this, in the quality of their immune response.
A score of between CD4 200 500 and indicates that some damage has been suffered by your immune system.
It is particularly important to monitor your score CD4 until it approximates 350 cells per milliliter of blood
Monitoring cell count CD4
It is recommended that you have two CD4 count tests if you are newly diagnosed with HIV infection. These results serve to provide a basis for your health situation.
This way, you and your doctor will be able to monitor future changes. These tests usually occur the first time you visit an infectious disease specialist. Then, every twelve months.
After you start your treatment with antiretroviral drugs, you will have a new CD4 count about a month after you start treatment.
When your undetectable viral load and your CD4 count starts to rise, you will do these counts every 12 months, or when there is a reason that calls for closer observation.
If you follow your treatment correctly, every 12 months can be good enough. I recommend the Draconian discipline and your medication. set a timetable and follow it diligently!
You see, there will be a higher frequency of tests if your count stops rising, your health doesn't improve or decline, or you don't feel well.
Monitoring your CD4 count will help you and your doctor make important decisions in caring for your overall health.
The success of your HIV treatment depends on it! Do as our President: Don't give it up!
Count CD4 above 350 - monitoring and early treatment in some circumstances.
If your score is above CD4 cells 350 and you are without symptoms, you probably do not need to start treatment now. But his count CD4 be maintained with regularity every six months. When your count cd4 start approaching 350 may want to monitor this more closely, every three months, for example, or even smaller intervals.
In some situations your doctor may order you to start treatment with antiretrovirals even if your count is over 350.
These possibilities include:
- IF you are coinfected with hepatitis B or C, for liver diseases worsen if the count is low CD4.
- If you have kidney problems.
- If you are in treatment for cancer.
- If you have a relatively advanced age (over 50, for example).
- If you want to get treatment, why be concerned about the possibility of transmitting HIV to someone (treatment significantly reduces the possibility of transmitting the virus).
- If you are ill because of HIV infection.
- In some cases, it is clear that you recently acquired HIV.
Count on CD4 350 - Starting HIV treatment
If your count CD4 drop to or near 350 350 is usually common to start HIV treatment. It has been shown that starting treatment with counts CD4 around 450 brings a number of advantages that started with CD4 in lower scores.
The immune system recovers more easily and quickly when treatment starts with counting CD4 around 350.
Starting treatment with counting CD4 around 350 creates a condition where you hardly get sick because of HIV. It is also shown that starting HIV treatment on this count, reduces greatly the likelihood of you developing serious diseases such as kidney or liver diseases, as well as some cancers.
Your doctor will talk with you about the start of treatment when the count CD4 approach 350. At this stage of treatment you will have more frequent exams CD4.
Count on CD4 200 or below - immediately start HIV treatment and prophylaxis for other diseases
If your CD4 count is 200 or below, it is imperative that your doctor starts treatment.
A CD4 count at these levels is an indication that you are at serious risk of developing opportunistic diseases.
Therefore, you should also start taking other medications, such as antibiotics, to prevent the onset of these diseases; this is called chemoprophylaxis. The type of chemoprophylaxis you will get will depend on your CD4 count.
Only your doctor, and not you, is able to tell you when you can safely stop.
Be sure to do chemoprophylaxis on your own! Only the doctor can determine that!
This occurs, in general, when the CD4 count rises above a certain count and remains for some time above this count.
For example, you may be given antibiotics (such as Bactrin or Dapsone) to prevent PCP, a dangerous type of pneumonia.
You may have to do other tests to assess their clinical / medical condition. Issso may include tests to assess illnesses and conditions, and may include tests for tuberculosis (TB). In countries like Brazil, with high rates of tuberculosis, you will be tested anyway
His count CD4 when you are being treated for HIV
Once you begin treatment for his HIV viral load will begin to fall and is expected to count CD4 climb gradually. The rate of growth varies from individual to individual and depends on many factors. In some people are required months and sometimes years for the count of cells cd4 rise to normal levels for the age of the person. In general, the lower the viral load is when you start treatment, the longer it takes for the immune system is completely recompose. But it's good that you understand that even the slightest change in your CD4 count, up, brings huge benefits to your health
Your doctor will monitor your viral load and count your CD4 for three months until it normalizes. Once your viral load becomes undetectable and his CD4 cell count starts to rise, your doctor may suggest (and it is up to you to accept or not) that the monitoring of these paths pass for longer periods, for example, every six months ..
Percentage of CD4
In addition to counting and monitoring the count CD4 some doctors sometimes make the measurement of the ratio of how many white cells are CD4 (There macrophages, TK, CD8 cells and others, all with definite and important functions for your health). Called CD4 percentage of cells. Although this system mensuramento white cell is not the most appropriate for monitoring the health of the immune system of adults, there are situations where this measurement is useful.
For example. If your count is very different from CD4 percentage CD4 can be an indicator of other health problems
Another situation where this comparison is useful when there is a wide variation between the count and the percentage of CD4 CD4 because there may be some kind of lack of harmony in these paths and this can be a warning sign that bigger problems may be about to occur, and thus the doctor may order additional medical tests, as for the people says, nip it in the bud.
It is very important that tests cell count cd4
The Original you find here.
The CD4 cell count is essential in the treatment of people with HIV and in people living with AIDS