How is HPV diagnosed?
It is very, very important to periodically test yourself for HPV, as the consequences of HPV infection are potentially fatal. Read, take care, love yourself. Well, only those who love each other are able to love other people and not “dying of love”. love doesn't kill
O Diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) involves not only detection of the virus, but also the determination of which of the more than 100 related viruses that make up HPV is present. While most are relatively harmless, it's especially important to find out if the infection involves one of more than 14 high-risk strains that are strongly related to cancer.1
Doctors will use a Pap smear, HPV test or biopsy - with your clinical tests - to form a diagnosis and, hopefully, detect any high-risk cases before it becomes a problem.
How a person is examined and tested varies by gender, age. and even sexual orientation.
The challenge with diagnosis, however, is that HPV usually does not produce obvious signs of infection, which can prompt people to delay testing. In some cases, individuals may be diagnosed with HPV for the first time when they are diagnosed with a related cancer..
HPV Tests for Women
One of the best ways to detect HPV infection in women is with a Pap smear. This can be done during a routine gynecological exam or specifically because HPV is suspected. During a Pap smear, cells are gently scraped from the cervix and examined under a microscope for signs of dysplasia. A visual examination will also be performed to identify genital warts (which usually have cauliflower appearance, but they can also be flat and skin-colored).
Keep in mind, however, that the absence of warts does not mean you are free of HPV.
Another test, called the HPV test, checks for real virus rather than changes in cervical cells. It is used in women aged 30 and over, either in response to an abnormal Pap smear or as part of routine screening.2
It can be performed simultaneously with the same smear - as the Pap smear (a practice known as a co-test).
Recommendations during testing against HPV
HPV screening recommendations may vary depending on the woman's age and other factors are three
- For women under 30, a Pap smear is recommended every three years. However, HPV testing is not routinely done, but can be added automatically if the Pap smear is abnormal (reflex HPV testing), as HPV infections are common in women in their 20s and rarely lead to cancer. . During this period, most HPV infections will be short-lived and will resolve on their own, no long-term consequences.
- For women from 30 to 65 years old, the Pap smear test can be performed every three years or the co-test with the Pap smear and HPV test can be performed every five years.
- Women HIV-positive under the age of 30 must have a pap smear every 12 months, when first diagnosed. After three normal results, the test can be extended to a Pap smear every three years, as long as the results are normal.
The Pap and HPV tests take just a few minutes to perform. Pap results are usually returned within two weeks.
HPV test results may take longer. Both are normally covered by insurance.
One of the biggest risk factors for cervical cancer is the lack of regular checkups. To avoid complications from HPV, women should follow the screening schedule above and notify their physicians of any warts, lesions, or other abnormalities that have developed in Organs genitals or anus.
Tests for men
Most HPV infections in men are evidenced by the appearance of one or more warts on the penis, scrotum, thighs, groin or anus. However, if a wart is internalized, it can often only be identified by examining the anal canal with an anoscope and/or using an anal Pap smear.
The anal Pap smear employs the same technology as the cervical Pap smear and is used to identify dysplasia in cells taken from the anus. The test can be an important tool for men who engage in receptive anal sex., since internalized warts are often not done.4
Information HPV vaccine for women
Despite this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends against routine anal Pap screening in men as it is not known whether treating a high-grade dysplasia prevents anal cancer.5.
Also, unlike the HPV tests used in women, there is no test currently available to confirm an oral or anal infection.
To this end, the CDC has issued a warning that anal Pap smears can be performed on men who have sex with men (MSM) who engage in receptive anal sex, although no specific screening guidelines have been set.4
This group has a 37 times higher risk of anal cancer compared to the general population.al.6 MSM who are HIV-positive are especially at risk. In the absence of screening guidelines, you need to be your own advocate and, if necessary, seek care from a doctor or clinic specializing in men's health, or specific care from the MSM.
Typically, these tests they are not covered by insurance. This, reader, reader, happens in the USA. If we allow our SUS to be dismembered by our mismanagement of sadists, we will be adrift. Who takes everything away from us, including labor rights.
Would it be like returning to the time immediately after the “start” of the industrial revolution, with people working 12 hours a day, in exchange for trifles, without the right to overtime, paid rest and paid vacations? Guys, it was getting sick and losing your job!
Genital Wart Biopsy
If a mole appears suspicious or is difficult to identify, the doctor may perform a biopsy to remove a tissue sample for laboratory analysis. Although the anesthetic injection used to numb the skin can be painful, the procedure, which is usually not painful.
Removed, the tissue can be examined under a microscope. The lab will then say that there are no abnormal cells (which means that everything is fine) or that there are abnormal cells called koilocytes. Koilocytes appear hollow or concave under the microscope and are characteristic of HPV infection.
A genital wart biopsy may be indicated if: 8
- HPV diagnosis is uncertain
- A wart is bleeding, inflamed, or has an atypical appearance.
- Does the person have HIV or is immune compromised
- There was no worsening of the condition seen in a previous exam.
Through it all, understand HIV's immunological window:
If an HPV Test is positive
Just as the absence of warts does not mean that you are free of HPV, the presence of a genital wart does not mean that you will have cancer.
Unless there is evidence of neoplasia (the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells), the doctor would consider a positive result from an HPV test a “red flag” and would continue to monitor the condition closely.
Get our printable guide at your next doctor's appointment to help you ask the right questions.
Although dysplasia can progress to cancer over time, the risk is highly variable. Low-grade dysplasia usually clears up on its own without treatment.
On the other hand, untreated high-grade dysplasia can progress to an early form of cancer known as carcinoma in situ (CIS).9
In the unlikely event that cancer or if the pre cancer is diagnosed, you will be referred to an oncologist to assess the disease and decide on the appropriate treatment. Fortunately, early diagnosis almost always makes treatment more successful.
Claudio Souza translated on May 31, 2021 from the original in How HPV Is Diagnosed
In the strictest terms of this text, it might be a good idea to follow this ad:
World Health Organization. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer. Updated January 24, 2019.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gynecological cancers: screening recommendations and considerations. Updated January 28, 2019.
- National Cancer Institute. HPV and Cancer. Updated May 28, 2019.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Screening | Questions and Answers | 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. Updated February 11, 2016.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV and Men - Data Sheet. Updated December 28, 2016.
- Colón-lópez V, Shiels MS, Machin M, et al. Anal cancer risk among people with HIV infection in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36 (1): 68-75. doi: 10.1200 / JCO.2017.74.9291
- Leeds, I. and Fang, S. Screening for anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia: a review. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2016; 8 (1): 41-51. doi: 10.4240 / wjgs.v8.i1.41
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 Guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases: anogenital warts. Updated June 4, 2015.
- Andersson S, Mints M, Gyllensten U, et al. Uneven distribution of human papillomavirus 16 in cervical carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in elderly women: a retrospective database study. Oncol Lett. 2014; 8 (4): 1528-1532. doi: 10.3892 / ol.2014.2347
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Updated April 29, 2019.