There is life with HIV

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HIV How It Is Caught - The Risks and Non-Risks

The fear persists given the complete lack of attention of many and the little interest in actually informing. Many are the ones who profit from clicks on unreliable articles...

HIV How is it caught? Can I get HIV in nail pliers? And what are the risks in other possible exposures? Why doesn't anyone talk about it on the internet?

Ways for the virus to be transmitted or not to be transmitted

 

 

Updated March 9, 2021

O HIV it is a virus that can be transmitted from one person with HIV to another without, through bodily fluids such as semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. HIV is most commonly transmitted during unprotected sex, particularly anal and vaginal sex, but it is also transmitted effectively through shared needles. HIV can also be transmitted from mother to son through the placenta during pregnancy or childbirth, due to exposure to blood or vaginal fluid, or while breast-feeding.

Some transmission modes are more efficient than others. For HIV to be transmitted, the virus must come into contact with mucous membranes (such as those found in the rectum and vagina), go through tissue breaks and tears (as can occur during sexual intercourse), or enter directly into the bloodstream through in shared needles, For example.

In addition, there needs to be plenty of virus to invade the body, defeating front-line immune defenses.

This is why HIV may not be transmitted through saliva, whose environment is hostile to the virus, or when the virus is completely suppressed (undetectable) in an HIV-positive person in antiretroviral therapy.

RISKS REMAIN! Condoms, condoms, will always be the safest option.

And if you think it's an exaggeration of my speaking sensibly, take a look at this video for less than a minute.

Reviewing: What is HIV?

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that preferentially targets white blood cells, called cells T CD4.

By killing more and more of these cells during their life cycle, it undermines the body's immune defenses and eventually becomes compromised. If an untreated HIV infection progresses, there will be continued damage to immune defense cells. As this happens, the body becomes less and less able to fight infections. When this happens we declare the person in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS.

There are four conditions that must be met for an HIV infection to occur:

  1. There must be bodily fluids in which the virus can develop.. HIV does not grow outdoors or in parts of the body that are high in acid, such as the stomach or bladder.
  2. There must be a transmission route through which the virus enters the body.. The main routes of transmission include sexual intercourse, needle sharing and mother-to-child infections.
  3. There must be immune cells present near the entry site. This allows the virus to spread once it enters the body.
  4. There must be a sufficient amount of the virus in the body fluids.. These values, measured by the viral load, may be high in body fluids such as blood and semen and low or non-existent in tears and saliva.2

Anal Sex

anal sex it is the predominant means of HIV transmission, occurring at a rate 18 times greater than in vaginal sex.

Translator's Note. I translated a text from this same site that declares that vaginal sex is the biggest means of contagion. This confuses me, but…

There are several reasons for this, especially that rectal tissues are more fragile and vulnerable to rupture than vaginal tissues.

Small microcracks that commonly occur during anal intercourse simply allow larger amounts of the virus to enter the body. They also expose potentially infected blood from the receptive partner to the insertive partner, thus transmitting to the insertive partner. Also, many people who have anal sex often do a shower before intercourse, removing the layer of mucus that could prevent the transmission of HIV.

These vulnerabilities help explain why infection rates in the United States are higher among men who have sex with men (MSM).

But the risk is not just limited to men Gay Boys and bisexuals; anywhere from 16% to 33% of heterosexual couples also have anal sex, often no preservatives.

Studies suggest that the risk of HIV in a receptive anal partner is almost double that of an insertive partner (40,4% versus 21,7% respectively).3

The risk is even greater if the insertive partner is uncircumcised due to microbes below the foreskin, increasing the spread (expulsion) of the virus in the seminal fluids.

How genital excretion increases the risk of HIV

Vaginal sex

vaginal sex it is the second most common mode of HIV transmission in the United States.

In many parts of the developing world, vaginal sex is the main mode of transmission, with women disproportionately affected compared to men.6

women are more vulnerable for several reasons:

  • The area of ​​exposure in the vagina is larger than that of the penis.
  • The vagina and cervix are vulnerable to common infections such as bacterial vaginosis e candidiasis (fungal infection), which compromise already delicate tissue.
  • During unprotected sex, ejaculation can often remain in the vagina for an extended period of time.
  • Vaginal douche before sex can remove protective mucus.

According to a review of 2018 HIV/AIDS Reports, women are twice as likely to contract HIV from a male partner during vaginal intercourse than the other way.

This is not to suggest that the male partner is not at risk, especially uncircumcised men. The bacteria-rich environment below the foreskin helps facilitate infection by increasing the number of white blood cells called cells. of Langerhans, which reside in the skin itself. These cells can inadvertently “capture” HIV and pull it into the body.8

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) such as Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis can increase risk in men and women, increasing viral shedding in people with HIV or compromising the genital tissues in those without HIV.

How STDs increase the risk of HIV

Oral sex

oral sex it is an inefficient way of transmitting HIV, whether oral-penile sex (“blowjob”), oral-vaginal sex (cunnilingus) or oral-anal sex (“rimming”).

The current scientific consensus is that HIV transmission among those who exclusively engage in oral sex is unlikely.

The risk may not be zero, but most agree it comes close.

A 2014 study in the magazine AIDS suggests that the risk of infection from oral sex between an HIV-negative recipient partner for HIV-positive insertive partners hovers between 0% and 0,4% to 0,10%.

This is not to suggest that people can have oral sex without risk. Cuts, abrasions and sores on the genitals or mouth can potentially increase the risk of infection, as can STDs or menstruation (aBoth promote the elimination of HIV).

Other STDs besides HIV can also be transmitted through oral sex, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, Herpes, human papilloma virus (HPV) and syphilis. Getting an STD independently increases the risk of HIV.11

Injecting drug use

Sharing needles is an extremely effective way of transmitting HIV, as it inoculates the virus directly from the blood of one infected person to another.

Injecting drug use is now the third most common mode of transmission in the United States and is the main mode of transmission in Russia and Central Asia, where the flow of drugs remains illegal.12

In the United States, the growing opioid crisis has spurred an increase in HIV infections. One of the most publicized HIV outbreaks occurred in 2015, when 79 infections were reported in the city of Austin, Indiana (population 4.295), all attributed to shared use of needles among recreational drug users groups.  oxymorphone. 13

even between users of anabolic steroids, there is an increase in the number of people who share needles, with nearly one in 10 contracting HIV according to a 2013 study in British Journal of Medicine. 14

Blood Transfusions and Transplants

early days of the HIV epidemic in the 1980s to early 1990s, there were many people infected with HIV due to contaminated blood transfusions. Prior to 1992, there were no screening tools available to ensure that the US blood supply, including clotting factors and plasma, was free of the virus.

This risk has dropped dramatically in recent decades due to advances in detection technologies and universal screening of blood and tissue donations in the United States and other countries. This not only includes HIV screening, but other blood-borne infections such as Hepatitis B e hepatitisC.

Today, the risk of HIV from a blood transfusion in the United States is one in 1,5 million. From 2002 to 2008, only one documented case of HIV transmission from a transfusion was reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).15

Risk can vary dramatically outside the United States. In Egypt, for example, one in four HIV infections is the result of a transfusion.16 In contrast, in South Africa, the country with the highest incidence of HIV in the world, the risk of transmission is closer to one in every 76.000 transfusions. 17

Pregnancy

As with blood transfusions, the risk of HIV infection from mother to child was high in the early years of the global pandemic. Today, the risk has dropped dramatically, even in the worst-affected parts of Africa, due to routine HIV screening of pregnant women and the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission.

When HIV transmission occurs, it usually occurs during childbirth with rupture of the membranes, which exposes the baby to HIV-contaminated blood and vaginal fluids. Before that, HIV does not usually cross the placenta from mother to child, unless there is placental abruption, premature rupture of the membranes, or a similar problem.

Even so, the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women can reduce the risk of vertical transmission by up to 95% by suppressing the virus to undetectable levels0,18

HIV can also be transmitted through breast milk, and in the United States, people with HIV are routinely advised to avoid breastfeeding regardless of whether they are on anti-HIV therapy or have an undetectable viral load. (The same recommendations have not been extended to the developing world, where the benefits of child nutrition are seen to outweigh the risks.) 19

If HIV is not treated, the risk of mother-to-child transmission during labor and delivery is between 15% and 30% and between 15% and 20% during breastfeeding.20

Annually, there are only about 150 cases of vertical transmissions in the United States, most often caused when a person presents in the hospital late in pregnancy or by not adhering to HIV therapy.21

Other possible causes

There are other, less common causes of HIV transmission and several for which the risk of HIV is unlikely but possible. This includes occupational exposure, dental procedures, body piercings and tattoos, and shared sex toys.

occupational exposure

HIV transmission from needlestick injuries or other occupational exposures can put healthcare professionals at risk. With that said, the risk of needle stick infection is lower. to one in 1.000, while contact with HIV-infected body fluids on intact skin is even less.

So far, only 58 cases of occupational HIV transmission have been confirmed. Others are thought to have been avoided with a 28-day course of antiretrovirals called HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).22

01- Does HIV Symptoms Mean I Have HIV?

dental procedures

In the early days of the AIDS crisis, headlines were made when a Pennsylvania woman named Kimberly Bergalis claimed to have contracted HIV through a dental procedure. The allegations were considered dubious, as Bergalis did not report previous sexually transmitted infections.

Since then, there have been numerous complaints but no documented cases of HIV transmission among dental patients. Of the eight cases reported among dentists, none were confirmed as having been transferred during a dental procedure.23

Body Piercings and Tattoos

Although theoretically feasible, the risk of HIV from getting piercings and tattoos is low due to licensing and strict regulation by industry professionals. For its part, the CDC insists that the risk of HIV transmission is low to negligible.2

Among unlicensed professionals who do not adhere to industry sterilization and hygiene practices, the risk is potentially greater, although it is unclear by how much.

shared sex toys 

Sex toys are generally considered a form of safe sex. With that said, insertive toys shared as dildos are considered potentially unsafe due to exposure to blood and other bodily fluids.

So far, the risk of HIV in shared toys remains unclear, as toys are rarely the only form of sex a couple can engage in. The same applies to fisting and other sexual practices that rupture or traumatize rectal or vaginal tissues. These activities could theoretically increase the risk of infection, but studies have yet to confirm this.24M

PrEP and Sorodiscordant Couples

Ways HIV cannot be transmitted

You cannot get HIV from hugging, kissing, shaking hands, sharing utensils, drinking from fountains, mosquito bites, toilet seats, or sexual touching without contact between bodily fluids.

With regard to manicure, pedicure, or even podologisno, the risk is even lower than that of accidents with piercing-cutting objects used by health professionals, descending, of course, to the level of improbable and even impossible. As I told a reader, the risk is so low that the contagion that might occur in this way would be more in God's designs than in the realms of science, and when God demands something, he can only accept it.

Or swallow it dry, without accepting, really hard. In this case, please understand.

There is life with HIV and positive, isn't it a sign of different?

 

Factors that increase the risk of transmission

There are a number of factors that can significantly increase the risk of HIV transmission, regardless of the route of exposure:

  • the sex unprotected: simply put, condom use reduces the risk of HIV transmission by 95% (I keep the text, however, this number can be 100%, since for decades, it was what could prevent an even greater calamity).26 Not using a condom eliminates this protective benefit.
  • high viral load: Every tenfold increase in viral load – from, say, 1.000 to 10.000 to 100.000 – increases the risk of HIV two to three times.27 Taking antiretroviral therapy reduces that risk.
  • Multiple partners: Having multiple sexual partners increases your chance of exposure to HIV. Even if you believe a partner is "safe", serosorting (untranslatable) (choosing a partner based on their supposed HIV status) is associated with a triple risk of getting an STD.28
  • Substance abuse: in addition to the risk of HIV due to sharing needles, illicit drugs such as crystal meth e the heroine it can impair judgment and increase risk-taking. Even non-injecting drugs and alcohol can lead to sexual disinhibition and risk-taking.29
  • Sexually transmitted diseases: STDs increase the risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. With ulcerative STDs such as syphilis, the risk of HIV can increase up to 140-fold in high-risk MSM populations. 30 
  • Genital Infections: Genital Infections not sexually acquired pose similar risks of transmission. Even uncomplicated ones such as urethritis are associated with an eight-fold increase in HIV risk.31
  • Shower: Some studies have shown that rectal showering in high-risk MSM populations more than doubles the risk of HIV from 18% to 44% .32 The risk The presence of HIV from a vaginal douche is less clear, but it is known that increases the risk of bacterial vaginitis.33
  • Being a sex worker: how much more people if you have sex, the greater the possibility of sexual transmission.
  • place of residence: living in dense urban populations where HIV prevalence rates are high and put you at greater risk compared to rural areas. This is especially true in poorer ethnic neighborhoods where there is no access to treatment and preventive services.34

A little more information:

Risk of getting HIV! What Are Your Risks In These Scenarios?

point to ponder

Understanding the risks of HIV can help you build individual strategies to help prevent or prevent the spread of HIV. This may involve consistent condom use and a reduction in the number of sexual partners or the use of needle exchange programs and other harm reduction strategies if you inject drugs.

If you have HIV, by far the best way to prevent transmission is condom use coupled with sustained maintenance of an undetectable viral load with antiretroviral therapy. Studies have proven that doing this reduces the risk of HIV transmission to zero.1

If you don't have HIV, you can protect yourself by taking Pre-Exposure HIV Prophylaxis (PrEP.), a once-daily antiretroviral tablet that can reduce the risk of infection by up to 90% if taken as prescribed.35

One more reference about eat if you catch and you don't catch HIV

Translated by Claudio Souza's original How Is HIV Transmitted? Written by James Myhre & Dennis Sifris,Clinically Revised MD e reviewed by Anju Goel, MD, MPH

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