STDs Increase The Risk Of Getting HIV, it is true, but many people don't quite understand how it happens. In this text you will see this, but you will also see ...
… 3 Surprising Ways STDs Increase HIV Risk
The fee of sexually ill tnon-transferable (STD's) in Brazil, the United States and the world they are on the rise. The number of syphilis cases has skyrocketed while gonorrheal infections have steadily increased since 2009. With the terrible aggravation of gonococcal terms increasingly resistant to an increasing number of antibiotics!
Perhaps most impressive, the number of chlamydia cases has almost doubled over the course of a single decade, from 929.462 in 2004 to 1.441.789 in 2014 in the United States alone.
While it is well known that STDs can significantly increase a person's risk of contracting HIV, many people still don't fully understand why this happens. And not even the ways in which STDs can facilitate infection.
This happens, even in low-risk activities, such as oral sex. The fact that many of these diseases remain undiagnosed only increases the chances of infection.
While it is clear that ulcerative infections like syphilis, which can manifest with open sores on the genitals, provide an easy access route for the virus. But about 20% of cases have no wounds. In addition, syphilitic ulcers in the rectum, or cervix, are often overlooked> and do create an increased window of vulnerability during primary infection, between three and six weeks.
But does this mean that ulcerative infections like syphilis are somehow “worse” than other STDs when it comes to HIV?
So it is interesting that we look at three reasons why this may not be the case.
An STD actively recruits cells for HIV to infect from 002 onwards ...
Well, every time a pathogen, a disease-causing agent, enters the body, the immune system is activated immediately. Thus, it results in a natural inflammatory response. Inflammation occurs simply because immune function is triggered at high speed. And it generates a great migration of several types of immune cells to isolate and kill the pathogen.
Thus, in a localized infection, as in STDs, defensive cells, such as CD4 e CD8 T cells, are recruited to the forefront of this defensive work. CD4 T cells are "helper" cells that essentially target CD8 "killer" T cells to neutralize the pathogen.
For the sad irony is that the cells themselves intended to signal the attack, the CD4 cells. And they, who come in this role, are those preferentially targeted by HIV for infection.
In This Case The Best Defense Wouldn't Have Been Attack
Therefore, the more robust the pathogenic attack, the more target cells are recruited and the more likely HIV will be able to penetrate the body's primary immune defenses.
That is why even the bacterial activity below the foreskin of the penis can increase the potential for HIV infection. Since the accumulation of bacteria can promptly trigger an immune response.
I, Claudio, imagine that this is why circumcision can avoid contagion with HIV, especially that it was of no use to me!
Therefore, even if an STD does not visibly compromise the tissues of Organs genitals, rectum or throat, the high concentration of immune cells at the site of infection provides HIV with a greater opportunity to thrive, especially if the infection is not treated.
An STD increases the concentration of HIV in the genital fluids
Just as an STD can increase a person's vulnerability to HIV, an STD it can also increase the risk of a person transmitting the virus to others.
For inflammation is, again, the primary cause, in which cells of the immune system are recruited aggressively to the site of the localized infection.
And when that happens, a process called "HIV elimination" can take place.
Thus, as a result of this release, newly activated HIV can multiply and infiltrate vaginal fluids and semen. And that increases viral load in large numbers! Way beyond what would happen without an STD.
According to a 2008 meta-analysis by the School of Public Health and Family Medicine at the University of Cape Town, the spread of HIV in the genital tract is almost doubled as a result of an active gonorrheal or chlamydia infection.
Even more serious, this can happen whether the person is being treated for HIV or not.
Research has shown that, in the presence of a sexually transmitted infection, a person on anti-HIV therapy may have detectable viruses in the genital secretions. Even if the viral load in your blood is completely suppressed. And I, Cláudio, ask myself: is it balanced with these facts that “treatment as prevention and the undetectable is the same as the non-transferable?
Some STDs can make HIV “recover”
Well, one of the main goals of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to completely suppress HIV to undetectable levels.
For in seven, in doing so, a person with HIV is much less likely to infect other people.
For, it says the following: most research seems to indicate that a person infected with HIV is more than 90% less likely to infect a compromised partner.
A person not infected with HIV, if he is on totally suppressive ART. But…
However, if that person has a viral rebound (ie, the sudden return of HIV activity), the risk of transmission can increase exponentially. And that puts TasP and I = I in check. Or not?
Explain to me. But convince me.
Two Hundred Percent Vital Rebound Risk
According to researchers at the ANRS (National Agency for Research on AIDS and Hepatitis) in France, people with HIV have an almost 200% higher risk of viral rebound if co-infected with syphilis.
On average, primary syphilis infection results in an increase in viral load of at least five times in HIV-infected men.
This includes men in ART continuous and totally suppressive and occurs regardless of age, sexual orientation or immune status.
The CD4 count.
This highlights the greater need for surveillance of syphilis in high-risk populations, particularly men who have sex with homens (MSM), which account for 83% of syphilis cases in men and 30% of all new HIV diagnoses in the USA.
Although there appears to be no association between other STDs and the risk of viral rebound, the continued risk of transmission remains high in people not treated for HIV.
Translated on December 22, 2020 by Cláudio Souza from the original in 3 Surprising Ways That STDs Increase HIV Risk, Written By James Myhre & Dennis Sifris, MD by Clinically reviewedLatesha Elopre, MD, MSPH in October 2020
STD sources increase the risk of getting HIV
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Sexually transmitted diseases - reported cases and reported case rates per 100.000 population, United States, 1941-2014." Atlanta, Georgia; page updated on November 17, 2015.
- Chun, H .; Carpenter, R .; Macalino, G .; et al. “The role of sexually transmitted infections in the progression of HIV-1: a comprehensive review of the literature. ” Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. May 28, 2012; Vol 2013; article ID 176459: 1-15.
- Jarzebowski, W .; Caumes, E .; Dupin, N .; et al. "Effect of early syphilis infection on plasma viral load and CD4 cell count in men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: results from the FHDH-ANRS CD4 cohort." Internal medicine files. September 10, 2012; 172 (16): 1237-1243.
- Johnson, L. and Lewis, D. “The effect of genital tract infections in the elimination of HIV-1 in the genital tract: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ” Sexually transmitted diseases. November 2008; 35 (11): 946-959.